Nicholas II (1894 – 1917) Nicholas II of Russia (18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last crowned Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. He ruled from 1894 until his forced abdication in 1917. It is said that Nicholas proved unable to manage a country in political turmoil and command its army in the largest international war to date. His rule ended with the Russian Revolution of 1917, after which he and his family were executed by Bolsheviks. Nicholas’s full name was Nikolai Aleksandrovich Romanov. His official title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias.2 He is also known both as Nicholas the Martyr for having been executed without trial and as Nicholas the Bloody for the tragic events during his coronation.